Different Therapeutic Modalities for management of COVID-19

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Al-Galaa Military Medical Complex, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Nutrition, Al-Galaa Military Medical Complex, Cairo, Egypt

3 Department of Public Health, Military Medical Academy, Cairo, Egypt

4 Department of Tropical Medicine, Military Medical Academy, Cairo, Egypt

5 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt


There is a global health concern caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and need for effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease.Aim: The review aims to highlight and compare between different therapeutic modalities for the management of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a search strategy using medical subject headings (MeSH) and included literature reviews, systematic reviews, and relevant updated publications from 2019 up to October 2023. Results and discussion: The transmission of the virus occurs through direct contact with an infected individual or respiratory droplets expelled through coughing or sneezing. Precautionary measures like isolation, handwashing, mask-wearing, and lockdowns have been implemented, but the need for effective treatment remains paramount. Antiviral, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory agents have been proposed as potential remedies against COVID-19. The management of symptoms may involve the use of antipyretics or anti-inflammatory medications for fever and mild pain, and oxygen therapy for respiratory distress. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. Conclusion: Hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir have displayed promising outcomes in clinical settings. Tocilizumab, an immunomodulatory agent, has shown reduced mortality rates compared to controls. The combination of bamlanivimab & etesevimab has shown a significant reduction in viral load. Fingolimod, a small molecule modulator, is being studied for its potential to regulate the immune response in severely infected COVID-19 patients. small clinical trial found that the combination of vitamin C and pentoxifylline resulted in lower levels of inflammatory markers. COVID-19 vaccination has shown promising protection against infection, reduced hospitalization rates, and lower mortality rates.